He had, in all fairness, prepared all of the meals we had shared during our New York friendship without ever complaining. For him, framing emotional work as anything but natural was seen as needlessly picky; it was making something big out of something that was simply best left alone. My friend would probably never dare say:
Received May 19; Accepted Dec 9. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that psychological constructs, such as emotional intelligence and emotional labor, play an important role in various organizational outcomes in service sector.
Methods Data were collected from physicians in Greece, who completed a series of self-report questionnaires including: Self-Emotion Appraisal was found to influence job satisfaction both directly and indirectly through surface acting, while this indirect effect was moderated by gender.
Apart from its mediating role, surface acting was also a moderator of the emotional intelligence-job satisfaction relationship. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that surface acting could predict job satisfaction over and above emotional intelligence dimensions.
Conclusions The results of the present study may contribute to the better understanding of emotion-related parameters that affect the work process with a view to increasing the quality of service in the health sector.
Emotional intelligence, Emotional labor, Surface acting, Job satisfaction, Greece Background There is increasing evidence to suggest a positive relationship between physician job satisfaction and patient satisfaction as well as health outcomes, i.
Mayer and Salovey [ 7 ] conceptualized four facets in EI: Theoretical approaches were followed by the design of measures to assess the construct of EI.
On the basis of the measurement method used to operationalize them, EI constructs can be categorized into trait EI emotion-related self-perceived abilities and behavioral tendencies measured through self-report tests and ability EI emotion-related cognitive abilities that should be assessed via maximum-performance tests [ 8 ].
Most scientific research in various fields is conducted within the framework of trait EI [ 9 ]. Irrespective of the theoretical framework used for empirical data interpretation, self-report measures remain important as well as widely used tools in different scientific fields [ 910 ]. EI has emerged as an interesting topic in social and organizational psychology [ 11 ] and appears to play a critical role in key organizational outcomes, such as job performance and JS, especially when the focus is on human interaction [ 12 - 15 ].
Importantly, in the health care setting, physicians who are more competent in recognizing emotions, concerns and needs of patients are more successful in treating them [ 1516 ]. Therefore, the interpersonal communication between the patient and the physician plays a major role in patient outcomes, and emotionally intelligent physicians consist of a valuable resource for hospitals.
As supported by a wide range of studies in varied work environments, employees with higher EI are more satisfied with their job [ 131418 - 21 ]. Furthermore, research findings from the limited number of empirical studies examining the moderating role of gender in the EI-JS relationship are controversial.
According to Petrides and Furnham [ 22 ] and Salim et al. EI is positively related to JS H1b: Gender may moderate the positive effect of EI on JS During interpersonal transactions, service employees are frequently involved in the process of emotional labor, i.
Two types of EL acting mechanisms have been proposed: In SA, employees alter the outward appearance of an emotion, i.
In deep acting, employees modify internal feelings in order to comply with the appropriate organizational display rules, by making an effort to understand and sympathize with other people [ 30 ]. EL is associated with emotional exhaustion and job burnout [ 2931 ], higher levels of work stress and psychological distress, and job dissatisfaction [ 293233 ].
Typically, research indicates a negative correlation between EL and JS for employees who engage in the process of SA [ 252934 - 36 ]. Interestingly, Johnson and Spector [ 39 ] indicated gender as a significant moderator in the relationship between SA and JS, with females being more likely to experience job dissatisfaction when engaged in SA.
SA is negatively related to JS H2b: Although emotionally intelligent people are assumed to be more adaptive in regulating emotions according to situational demands [ 7 ], results of studies exploring the association between EI and EL have been contradictory. Apart from a direct relationship between EI and JS, research has also established the mediating role of different variables, such as positive and negative affect, as well as personal accomplishment, in the EI-JS relationship [ 1341 ].
Given the limited evidence, any possible mediating or moderating role of SA in the EI-JS relationship remains to be elucidated.
SA may moderate the EI-JS relationship Research has primarily focused on direct associations among organizational psychology variables, while empirical studies integrating the constructs of EI, JS and EL in healthcare occupational setting and particularly among physicians are very limited; thus no safe conclusions can be drawn.
Apart from the primary research hypotheses, reliability and validity of constructs were also tested. Methods Sample The sample included physicians, 80 males and 50 females, working at the University Hospital of Patras.
Participants were administered a series of self-report questionnaires.about how gender shapes the relationship between emotional labor and job satisfaction, as well as illuminating the unique experiences of men in a female-dominated, emotionally de- gender shapes emotional labor and its effects among men in a female-dominated profession.
In sum, conversely to Studies 1 and 2, employees’ work-life balance perception does not act as mediator in the relationship between emotional labor and normative commitment.
However, Study 3 confirms the significant mediation effect of emotional dissonance on normative commitment with job satisfaction as mediator.
Emotional labor also covers the requirement that a worker should modulate her feelings in order to influence the positive experience of a client or a colleague.
Emotional labor harms psychological peace and has negative effects on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Burnout may occur to . Inspired by the scarcity of studies on emotional intelligence and its effect on job satisfaction among Information Technology Professionals, a study was conducted to fill this gap.
Employing a survey research methodology involving. how the jay-customer moderates the effects of emotional labor on employee's emotional exhaustion. For developing an overview in this area, the questionnaires were distributed with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, and customer satisfaction.
Grandey, Rupp, & Brice.