Central points of the theory are described as follows:
Diversity[ edit ] Diversity is fundamental to life at all levels of organization: No two individuals have an identical DNA sequence, with the exception of identical twins or clones.
This genetic variation contributes to phenotypic variation - that is, diversity in the outward appearance and behavior of individuals of the same species.
Adaptation[ edit ] Populations must adapt to their environment Rationale choice and trait theory survive. Living organisms have morphological, biochemical, and behavioral features that make them well adapted for life in the environments in which they are usually found.
For example, consider the hollow bones and feathers of birds that enable them to fly, or the cryptic coloration that allows many organisms to hide from their predators or prey.
These features may give the superficial appearance that organisms were designed by a creator or engineer to live in a particular environment. Evolutionary biology has demonstrated that adaptations arise through selection acting on a population through genetic variation.
Divergence[ edit ] Species evolved along different paths from a common ancestor. All living species differ from one another. In some cases, these differences are subtle, while in other cases the differences are dramatic.
Carl Linnaeus proposed a classification that is still used today with slight changes. In the modern scheme, related species are grouped into genera, related genera into families, and so on. This hierarchical pattern of relationship produces a tree-like pattern, which implies a process of splitting and divergence from a common ancestor.
While Linnaeus classified species using similar physical characteristics, modern evolutionary biologists also base classification on DNA analysis, which can distinguish between superficial resemblances between species and those which are due to common ancestry. Mechanisms of evolution[ edit ] Biological evolution results from changes over time in the genetic constitution of species.
The accumulation of genetic variations often, but not always, produces noticeable changes in the appearance or behavior of organisms.
Evolution requires both the production of variation and the spread of some variants that replace others. Mutation occurs when DNA is imperfectly copied during replication, or by changes in genetic material caused by such mutagens as radiation, leading to a difference between a parent's gene and that of its offspring.
Genes can be shuffled between organisms[ edit ] Recombination occurs when genes from two parents are shuffled to produce an offspring, as happens in every instance of sexual reproduction. Usually the two parents belong to the same species, but sometimes especially in bacteria genes move between more distantly related organisms.
Not all mutations become fixed in a population[ edit ] The fate of any particular genetic variant depends on two processes, drift and selection.
Drift refers to random fluctuations in gene frequency, and its effects are usually seen at the level of DNA. Ten flips of a coin do not always or even usually produce exactly five heads and five tails; drift refers to the same statistical issue applied to the transmission of genetic variants across generations.
Genetic drift is inverse to population size; that is, genetic drift has a greater effect on small populations than larger ones.Rational Choice & Trait Theories in Criminology - Chapter Summary.
Our instructors present the rational choice and trait theories used in criminology in this engaging chapter. Choice Theories: Rational Choice Theory Proponents of this choice theory feel that crimes occur when the benefits are greater than the risks and that people make sound choices to increase gain and.
Likewise, self control theory (Bradley and Walters, ) and individual trait theory (Schechter, ), two common criminological theories focus specifically on the offender, and in doing so, restrict opportunities to thoroughly understand the methodology behind the activities that support, in this case, the rationale behind the decisions.
Rational Choice vs.
Trait Theory Essay; Words Jul 5th, 6 Pages. Rational Choice Theory VS. Trait Theory Student Name Criminology: Park University Online Program In this essay I will be comparing and contrasting the Rational Choice Theory(s) and the Trait Theory(s).
We will start with the history of the two theories and progress. My topic was «Sources rationale of circulating capital and its economic evaluation.” The paper was done very well!
My tutor has noticed few small flaws, but editors fixed itvery quickly. CHAPTER 2 THEORIES OF ORGANIZED CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR 61 commission exists whose function is to arbitrate disputes between families and assign territory (discussed later in the chapter).
Ethnicity is a key to the alien conspiracy theory of the organized crime.