The Neptunea 19th-century convict ship that brought prisoners to Australia In England in the 17th and 18th centuries criminal justice was severe, later termed the Bloody Code.
The Nineteenth Century saw many technological changes, but none of them were to have as wide repurcussions as the invention of the train. The power of steam had been known for some time but applying this power to moving heavy goods and people over long distances was one application that would have profound consequences and serve the British and their Empire for well over a hundred years.
It was George Stephenson who realised the full power and potential of the steam engine when he designed a machine that could take advantage of narrow copper tubes which could be heated to create the all important steam power.
The Rocket was the first such steam engine to take advantage of this new technology as it operated between Liverpool and Manchester from However, technical change was to become rapid and the train was to change its appearance and technical specifications again and again.
Inevitably, it was the mother country that first saw her landscape transformed by this new invention.
Navvies from Ireland, Scotland and the North of England scarred the landscape with viaducts, bridges and tunnels in the pursuit of the smooth gradients that trains required to travel at their most efficient level.
They were paid a pittance for excruciating and dangerous work. In many ways, these navvies represented one of the largest migrations of Imperial settlers as they moved over from Ireland or as they followed the train tracks around the country and ended up settling in the last place they found work.
In there were a quarter of a million navvies digging and blasting their way over the British landscape, their travels are one of the lesser documented migrations of history.
However, the job they did is still plain to see in the British landscape some years later and will be for many more years to come. The amount of track laid in Britain increased from only miles in to over 8, by This expansion of track also brought down the cost of travel so that all but the poorest could afford to travel by train.
In the stagecoach days, a ticket from London to Manchester and back would have cost '3 10s but by the train fare for this same journey was only 5s a fourteenth of the stagecoach fare for a far quicker and more comfortable journey.
Of course, the expansion of the railways didn't just rest on the invention of the steam train. Iron was needed for the rails and its mass production helped to reduce the costs to the railway industry. In addition, iron girders and glass were used to construct magnificent looking railway stations.
Even older industries, like stonemasonry were given a new lease of life as vast quantities of stone and rock were needed for sleepers, bridges and stations. The railway age was an enormous boost to the economy of Britain, and would provide the country with one of the most efficient infrastructures for the remainder of the century.
It wouldn't take colonial administrators long to see the benefits that such an infrastructure could bring to the colonies they were in charge of.
Particularly, as some of these colonies could be immense in size and with little existing infrastructure. Horses and ships had provided the most efficient means of transport to date, but ships obviously couldn't reach the interior and horses could not match the speed and power of this latest invention.
The old established colonies like India, leapt at the railway opportunities and built a railway structure that would even rival the mother country's in scope and scale. They were often financed by British industrialists keen to move the primary products of India to the ports ready to be exported to Britain and her factories.
Cotton, spices and teas would all provide the economic model for railway building that would later be copied in other colonies by other crops and industries; rubber in Malaysia, coffee in South America, grains in Canada and livestock in Australia and New Zealand.From the seventeenth to twentieth centuries, approximately , transportation convicts journeyed to and around locations across the British Empire.
This article explores the scale, reach and significance of these convict flows in the period after , arguing for a transnational history of. Yemen: Yemen, an arid and mostly mountainous country situated at the southwestern corner of the Arabian Peninsula.
This article provides a geographical and historical treatment of Yemen, including maps, statistics, and a survey of its people, economy, and government. British Empire, Colonial, colonial, colony, imperial,transport, train, ships, steam, colonies, imperialism, Stephen Luscombe, empire, history England was a small island nation off the coast of the very powerful and dynamic continent of Europe proper.
The Mughal Empire was founded in CE, peaked around and steadily declined into the 19th century, severely weakened by conflicts over succession. Facilitating Imperialism through Advanced Technologies viable method of transportation, British shipbuilders began experimenting with iron as transatlantic travel and taking goods upriver on a flat barge.
These advancements helped Europeans extend . A History of the British Empire including timelines, maps, biographies and detailed histories amongst many other resources for anyone interested in this vital period of imperial history.